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Cannabis Reduces Opioid Overdose Mortality In states with medicinal cannabis laws…

Cannabis Reduces Opioid Overdose Mortality
In states with medicinal cannabis laws, opioid overdoses drop by an average of 25%. This effect gets bigger the longer the law has been in place. For instance, there is a 33% drop in mortality in California,where compassionate use has been in place since 1996.
Cannabis Reduces Opioid Consumption
Cannabis is opioid-sparing in chronic pain patients. When patients are given access to cannabis, they drop their opioid use by roughly 50%.
Cannabis use is associated with a reduction in not only opioid consumption, but also many other drugs including benzodiazepines, which also have a high incidence of fatal overdose. In states with medicinal cannabis laws, the number of prescriptions for analgesic and anxiolytic drugs (among others) are substantially reduced.
Medicare and Medicaid prescription costs are substantially lower in states with cannabis laws.
Cannabis Can Prevent Dose Escalation And Opioid Tolerance
Cannabinoids and opioids have acute analgesic synergy. When opioids and cannabinoids are coadministered, they produce greater than additive analgesia. This suggests that analgesic dose of opioids is substantially lower for patients using cannabis therapy.
Cannabis Could Be A Viable First-Line Analgesic
The CDC has updated its recommendations in the spring of 2016, stating that most cases of chronic pain should be treated with non-opioids.
The National Academies of Science and Medicine recently conducted an exhaustive review of 10,000+ human studies published since 1999, definitively concluding that cannabis itself (not a specific cannabinoid or cannabis-derived molecule) is safe and effective for the treatment of chronic pain.
Cannabis May Be A Viable Tool In Medication-Assisted Relapse Prevention
CBD is non-intoxicating, and is the 2nd most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBD alleviates the anxiety that leads to drug craving. In human pilot studies, CBD administration is sufficient to prevent heroin craving for at least 7 days.
Cannabis users are more likely to adhere to naltrexone maintenance for opioid dependence.

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Physician Guide to Cannabis-Assisted Opioid Reduction Prepared by Adrianne Wilson-Poe, Ph.D. Distributed by Congressman Earl Blumenauer

Physician Guide to Cannabis-Assisted Opioid Reduction
Prepared by Adrianne Wilson-Poe, Ph.D.
Distributed by Congressman Earl Blumenauer
Cannabis reduces opioid overdose mortality.
• In states with medicinal cannabis laws, opioid overdoses drop by an average of 25%. This effect gets
bigger the longer the law has been in place. For instance, there is a 33% drop in mortality in California,
where compassionate use has been in place since 1996 (1).
• This finding was replicated by Columbia’s school of public health, using a completely different analysis
strategy (2).
Cannabis reduces opioid consumption.
• Cannabis is opioid-sparing in chronic pain patients. When patients are given access to cannabis, they
drop their opioid use by roughly 50%. This finding has been replicated several times from Ann Arbor to
Jerusalem (3, 4).
• This opioid sparing effect is accompanied by an enhancement of cognitive function once patients begin
cannabis therapy: this effect is most likely due to the fact that patients reduce their opioid use (5).
• Cannabis use is associated with a reduction in not only opioid consumption, but also many other drugs
including benzodiazepines, which also have a high incidence of fatal overdose. In states with medicinal
cannabis laws, the number of prescriptions for analgesic and anxiolytic drugs (among others) are
substantially reduced (6). Medicare and Medicaid prescription costs are substantially lower in states
with cannabis laws (7).
Cannabis can prevent dose escalation and the development of opioid tolerance.
• Cannabinoids and opioids have acute analgesic synergy. When opioids and cannabinoids are
coadministered, they produce greater than additive analgesia (8). This suggests that analgesic dose of
opioids is substantially lower for patients using cannabis therapy.
• In chronic pain patients on opioid therapy, cannabis does not affect pharmacokinetics of opioids, yet it
still enhances analgesia. This finding further supports a synergistic mechanism of action (9).
• Pre-clinical models indicate that cannabinoids attenuate the development of opioid tolerance (10, 11).
Cannabis, alone or in combination with opioids, could be a viable first-line analgesic.
• The CDC has updated its recommendations in the spring of 2016, stating that most cases of chronicpain
should be treated with non-opioids (12).
• The National Academies of Science and Medicine recently conducted an exhaustive review of 10,000+
human studies published since 1999, definitively concluding that cannabis itself (not a specific
cannabinoid or cannabis-derived molecule) is safe and effective for the treatment of chronic pain (13).
• When 3,000 chronic pain patients were surveyed, they overwhelmingly preferred cannabis as an opioid
alternative (14).
o 97% “strongly agreed/agreed” that they could decrease their opioid use when using cannabis
o 92% “strongly agreed/agreed” that they prefer cannabis to treat their medical condition
o 81% “strongly agreed/ agreed that cannabis by itself was more effective than taking opioids
Cannabis may be a viable tool in medication-assisted relapse prevention
• CBD is non-intoxicating, and is the 2nd most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis. CBD alleviates
the anxiety that leads to drug craving. In human pilot studies, CBD administration is sufficient to
prevent heroin craving for at least 7 days (15).
• Cannabis users are more likely to adhere to naltrexone maintenance for opioid dependence (16).
Bibliography and References Cited
1. Bachhuber MA, Saloner B, Cunningham CO, Barry CL. Medical cannabis laws and opioid analgesic overdose
mortality in the United States, 1999-2010. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(10):1668-73. doi:
10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.4005. PubMed PMID: 25154332; PMCID: 4392651.
2. Kim JH, Santaella-Tenorio J, Mauro C, Wrobel J, Cerda M, Keyes KM, Hasin D, Martins SS, Li G. State Medical
Marijuana Laws and the Prevalence of Opioids Detected Among Fatally Injured Drivers. Am J Public Health.
2016;106(11):2032-7. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303426. PubMed PMID: 27631755; PMCID: PMC5055785.
3. Boehnke KF, Litinas E, Clauw DJ. Medical Cannabis Use Is Associated With Decreased Opiate Medication Use in a
Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey of Patients With Chronic Pain. J Pain. 2016;17(6):739-44. doi:
10.1016/j.jpain.2016.03.002. PubMed PMID: 27001005.
4. Haroutounian S, Ratz Y, Ginosar Y, Furmanov K, Saifi F, Meidan R, Davidson E. The Effect of Medicinal Cannabis
on Pain and Quality-of-Life Outcomes in Chronic Pain: A Prospective Open-label Study. Clin J Pain.
2016;32(12):1036-43. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000364. PubMed PMID: 26889611.
5. Gruber SA, Sagar KA, Dahlgren MK, Racine MT, Smith RT, Lukas SE. Splendor in the Grass? A Pilot Study
Assessing the Impact of Medical Marijuana on Executive Function. Front Pharmacol. 2016;7:355.
doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00355. PubMed PMID: 27790138; PMCID: PMC5062916.
6. Bradford AC, Bradford WD. Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Prescription Medication Use In Medicare Part D. Health
Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(7):1230-6. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1661. PubMed PMID: 27385238.
7. Bradford AC, Bradford WD. Medical Marijuana Laws May Be Associated With A Decline In The Number Of
Prescriptions For Medicaid Enrollees. Health Aff (Millwood). 2017;36(5):945-51. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2016.1135.
PubMed PMID: 28424215.
8. Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M. Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and
morphine. European journal of pharmacology. 2006;530(1-2):54-8. Epub 2005/12/27. doi:
10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.11.036. PubMed PMID: 16375890.
9. Abrams DI, Couey P, Shade SB, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL. Cannabinoid-opioid interaction in chronic pain. Clinical
pharmacology and therapeutics. 2011;90(6):844-51. Epub 2011/11/04. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2011.188. PubMed PMID:
22048225.
10. Wilson AR, Maher L, Morgan MM. Repeated cannabinoid injections into the rat periaqueductal gray enhance
subsequent morphine antinociception. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55(7):1219-25. doi:
10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.07.038. PubMed PMID: 18723035; PMCID: 2743428.
11. Smith PA, Selley DE, Sim-Selley LJ, Welch SP. Low dose combination of morphine and delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol
circumvents antinociceptive tolerance and apparent desensitization of receptors. European journal of pharmacology.
2007;571(2-3):129-37. Epub 2007/07/03. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.06.001. PubMed PMID: 17603035; PMCID:
2040345.
12. Dowell D, Haegerich TM, Chou R. CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain – United States, 2016.
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016;65(1):1-49. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.rr6501e1. PubMed PMID: 26987082.
13. NASEM. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for
Research. Washington (DC) 2017.
14. Reiman A, Welty M, Solomon P. Cannabis as a Substitute for Opioid-Based Pain Medication: Patient Self Report.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):160-6. doi: 10.1089/can.2017.0012. PubMed PMID: 28861516; PMCID:
PMC5569620.
15. Hurd YL, Yoon M, Manini AF, Hernandez S, Olmedo R, Ostman M, Jutras-Aswad D. Early Phase in the Development
of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage. Neurotherapeutics.
2015;12(4):807-15. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0373-7. PubMed PMID: 26269227; PMCID: PMC4604178.
16. Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, Brooks AC, Jiang H, Sullivan M, Bisaga A, Comer S, Nunes EV. Intermittent
marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence. Am J Addict.
2009;18(4):301-8. doi: 10.1080/10550490902927785. PubMed PMID: 19444734; PMCID: PMC2753886.


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Germany Indications for Medical Marijuana patients – from Cannabis as Medicine group

The government has, at the request of the LEFT in the Bundestag, published the diagnoses of people with an exemption for the purchase of cannabis flowers from the pharmacy. After the system exception approval is now past, these figures are likely to be the “final result” for 10 years of “exceptional medicine” cannabis via §3 paragraph 2 BtMG.

In print 18/11701 of 27.03.2017 the government writes:

The medical conditions underlying the exemptions pursuant to § 3 paragraph 2 BtMG are varied according to the information in the application documents. Some patients perform self-therapy with cannabis because of multiple diagnoses.
The main diagnosis groups and the corresponding percentages of the patients are presently as follows (duplications are
possible):

indication Percentage share
pain approximately 57 percent
ADHD approximately 14 percent
Spasticity (different genesis) approximately 10 percent
depression approximately 7 percent
Anorexia / cachexia approximately 5 percent
Tourette syndrome about 4 percent
bowel disease about 3 percent
epilepsy about 2 percent
Other psychiatry about 2 percent
Posted in Cannabis as a medicine .


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October 2, 1937, House Bill 6385: The Marihuana Tax Act was enacted as law

Eighty years ago, on October 2, 1937, House Bill 6385: The Marihuana Tax Act was enacted as law. The Act for the first time imposed federal criminal penalties on activities specific to the possession, production, and sale of cannabis – thus ushering in the modern era of federal prohibition.

“The ongoing enforcement of marijuana prohibition financially burdens taxpayers, encroaches upon civil liberties, engenders disrespect for the law, and disproportionately impacts young people and communities of color,” said NORML Executive Director Erik Altieri, “It makes no sense from a public health perspective, a fiscal perspective, or a moral perspective to perpetuate the prosecution and stigmatization of those adults who choose to responsibly consume a substance that is safer than either alcohol or tobacco.”

Congress held only two hearings to debate the merits of the Marihuana Tax Act, which largely consisted of sensational testimony by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics Director Harry Anslinger. He asserted before the House Ways and Means Committee, “This drug is entirely the monster Hyde, the harmful effect of which cannot be measured.” His ideological testimony was countered by the American Medical Association, whose legislative counsel Dr. William C. Woodward argued that hard evidence in support of Anslinger’s hyperbolic claims was non-existent.

Woodward testified: “We are told that the use of marijuana causes crime. But yet no one has been produced from the Bureau of Prisons to show the number of prisoners who have been found addicted to the marijuana habit. … You have been told that school children are great users of marijuana cigarettes. No one has been summoned from the Children’s Bureau to show the nature and extent of the habit among children. Inquiry of the Children’s Bureau shows that they have had no occasion to investigate it and know nothing particularly of it.” He further contended that passage of the Act would severely hamper physicians’ ability to prescribe cannabis as a medicine.

Absent further debate, members of Congress readily approved the bill, which President Franklin Roosevelt promptly signed into law on August 2, 1937. The ramifications of the law became apparent over the ensuing decades. Physicians ceased prescribing cannabis as a therapeutic remedy and the substance was ultimately removed from the US pharmacopeia in 1942. United States hemp cultivation also ended (although the industry was provided a short-lived reprieve during World War II). Policy makers continued to exaggerate the supposed ill effects of cannabis, which Congress went on to classify alongside heroin in 1970 with the passage of the US Controlled Substances Act. Law enforcement then began routinely arresting marijuana consumers and sellers, fueling the racially disparate, mass incarceration epidemic we still face today.

Despite continued progress when it comes to legalizing or decriminalizing the adult use of marijuana, data from the recently released Uniform Crime Report from the FBI revealed that over 600,000 Americans were arrested for marijuana offenses in 2016.

After 80 years of failure, NORML contends that it is time for a common sense, evidence-based approach to cannabis policy in America.

“Despite nearly a century of criminal prohibition, the demand for marijuana is here to stay. America’s laws should reflect this reality and govern the cannabis market accordingly,” stated NORML Deputy Director Paul Armentano, “Policymakers ought to look to the future rather than to the past, and take appropriate actions to comport federal law with majority public opinion and the plant’s rapidly changing legal and cultural status.”


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Peter Homberg is Partner and Head of the German Life Sciences Practice at Dentons, one of the top 10 global law firms present in more than 50 countries. He and his colleagues advise on Germany’s new regulations regarding the legalization of cannabis for medical use.

There are many unusual questions to be asked, so this time we caught up with a very different kind of expert: Peter Homberg is Partner and Head of the German Life Sciences Practice at Dentons, one of the top 10 global law firms present in more than 50 countries. He and his colleagues advise on Germany’s new regulations regarding the legalization of cannabis for medical use.

Peter, the effect and use of cannabis are highly controversial. What is the significance of cannabis for medical purposes and what does the legalization mean for patients?

Before the law was liberalized, patients who suffered from certain diseases, like multiple sclerosis, cancer or chronic pain, could only use cannabis if they had applied for a specific exemption at the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). As regulations were extremely strict, only a few hundred patients were granted the permission to use the cannabis plant for medicinal purposes.

So what does it do? The plant is famous for containing THC, short for tetrahydrocannabinol, which binds to specific cannabis receptors (CB) in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The activation of CB1 in the spinal cord, for instance, reduces the perception of pain. In terms of medical use this means that cannabis can give relief to people suffering from cancer, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain and other serious diseases

The change in law means that patients can now receive a prescription from their doctor. If the doctor decides that there are no therapeutic alternatives to alleviate the patient’s suffering, the prescription allows the patient to obtain cannabis at the pharmacy. Although the restrictions have been lifted slightly, these processes are still strictly controlled by the BfArM.

The change in German law means that cannabis can now be prescribed as a pain killer by GPs
What is the current state of affairs in regards to legislation and what is the legal process for obtaining a license to cultivate cannabis?

With the legalization of cannabis, the BfArM established a cannabis agency within the institution to organize and control the cultivation of cannabis for medical use. As a result, a public tender has been released, and numerous companies have applied for the cultivation license.

Companies have to abide to strict guidelines to obtain a cultivation license
Of course, the process is taking much longer than expected, as this is a totally new field and the BfArM is asking for very specific qualifications: A company needs to have had some kind of past experience with cannabis products, they have to own indoor premises for the cultivation of the plants and have specific security measures in place in order to qualify.

Although we don’t have companies in Germany that have experience with growing cannabis, we do have some that have imported the plants from outside of Germany. They have significant experience in handling the product, be it through packaging or security measures.

For example, here in Germany there is a subsidiary of a larger Canadian company that has been producing the plants to a large extent. So this is a great advantage for them as they can build on their experience in Canada and fulfil the necessary requirements to qualify as legal cultivators.

You’ve been able to legally smoke weed in the Netherlands since the 1970’s, other countries like Italy and Denmark liberalized the medical use years ago. Germany seems quite slow in catching-up, why is that?

The legalization of cannabis for medical use in Germany occurred through a chain of unforeseeable events
Germany has one of the strictest narcotic drugs laws in Europe. In my opinion, if the German Federal Administrative Court hadn’t made a very specific decision, then the changes in legislation would never have been made. But through a chain of unforeseeable events, the following occurred:

One of the patients who had received the exemption from the BfArM, started growing his own cannabis at home, stating that the exemption included not only the purchase, but also the cultivation of cannabis. When BfArM sent him a cease and desist order, he took the issue to court.

In the last instance, the court ruled in his favour. This meant that all people who had previously received an exemption from BfArM would be able to legally grow cannabis at home. As this ruling would have resulted in a loss of control by the BfArM and in extension the government, cannabis was legalized for medical use and the complete control over cultivation and distribution returned to the government.

What role is Dentons playing in this whole transition process?

First and foremost we have been informing our international clients on regulatory issues and the new legislation in Germany. With cannabis everything is new, it’s a completely new field and different from any other topic in the life sciences.

THC – tetrahydrocannabinol – binds to specific cannabis receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems
We have an international cannabis group at Dentons that is at the forefront of current affairs and keeps up to date on the topic. Our work includes regulatory advice, mergers and acquisitions and intellectual property. For instance, we have advised clients, one of them a large Canadian company, on the acquisition of a cannabis distributor in Germany to get a strong foothold in the country and on the European market.

In future, we will also have to handle various disputes. It will be very interesting to see how they evolve, how to handle them and their outcome. If one company, for example, receives the permission to cultivate cannabis in Germany and others don’t, then these decisions will certainly be challenged.

What can Germany… what can Europe learn from Canada?

Canada is well ahead in the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. What is happening in Germany now is following the Canadian pattern: Today, we have a tender in the public procurement field that came from BfArM. It invited qualified companies to put forward their bid on specific cannabis plants in order to sell these to BfArM. In turn, BfArM will sell these plants to the pharmacies. Like in Canada, a government controlled process.

Germany can learn from Canada in issues of quality control as well. BfArM wants to overlook the cultivation and distribution process, because patients have to be able to count on a high quality product. Quality control includes specific laboratories, which check the type of insecticides or pesticides used or how much THC a plant contains.

There is much to learn from the Canadians, such as quality control, and cultivation and distribution processes
How do you see this niche developing from a legal but also from a medical perspective? What do you personally hope to see happen?

Our clients hope to see a greater liberalization, also for casual use. In my opinion this is not going to happen neither in Germany, nor in other countries in Europe. Nevertheless, more countries in the world are considering the medical use of cannabis and consequently, investors are looking into it as they expect a significant growth in the market.

We will also see a certain amount of effort put into research. With this new kind of liberalisation the indications that qualify for cannabinoid treatment have to be defined. Today we know that cannabis can help patients with for example chronic pain, cancer or multiple sclerosis, but in future we may discover more indications that will qualify for the treatment with cannabis.

“Germany has one of the strictest narcotic drugs laws in Europe”
Accordingly, the group of patients who can use cannabis as a medicinal product will grow. But the market in Germany is very competitive, so it will be interesting to see how companies and institutions will position themselves on the market to get a piece of the cake that is bound to become larger and larger every year.

Personally, I am glad that cannabis has been made available as a medicinal product for people who suffer severe pain. For many it is the best painkiller with less side effects than other drugs.

Want to learn more about the legal aspects of cannabis as a medicinal product? Visit Dentons here!

Images via Miss Nuchwara Tongrit, Africa Studio, Shutterstockphoto3, Zerbor/Shutterstock

What you need to Know about the Legalization of Cannabis for Medical Use


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The Ministry of the Interior writes in his reply that in 2015 there were 1736 alcohol deaths in Bavaria, six more than in the previous year. Of these 123 were between 25 and 44 years old and two were under 25 years. Men were affected in about two-thirds of alcohol-related deaths. In addition, according to the Ministry, deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption, which is an accompanying factor, for example, in certain cancers. The Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (German Health and Food Safety Authority) therefore assumes around 12,000 deaths per year.

09/15/2017
Oans, zwoa, totgsuffa
Every year there are over 1700 alcoholic beverages in Bavaria. Young people drink again less – more for this

What would happen if not alcohol, but cannabis the Volksgestge number 1? Two and a half weeks at the Oktoberfest from the teenager to the retiree, over the course of the evening, several grams of grass would be ordered, look at each other in the light of the light of the joint and danced to the latest Wiesn hits. What is unimaginable with cannabis is normal with alcohol. In Germany 74,000 people die each year from the effects of alcohol abuse.

More than every second of the 11 to 17-year-olds have already drunk alcohol, 13 percent have a drunken at least once a month, 4500 children and adolescents have to be admitted to the hospital every year. “In Bavaria around 270,000 people are dependent on alcohol,” write Katharina Schulze and Ulrich Leiner (both Greens) in their request. They wanted to know from the state government the consequences of alcohol consumption in Bavaria.

The Ministry of the Interior writes in his reply that in 2015 there were 1736 alcohol deaths in Bavaria, six more than in the previous year. Of these 123 were between 25 and 44 years old and two were under 25 years. Men were affected in about two-thirds of alcohol-related deaths. In addition, according to the Ministry, deaths are attributable to alcohol consumption, which is an accompanying factor, for example, in certain cancers. The Landesamt für Gesundheit und Lebensmittelsicherheit (German Health and Food Safety Authority) therefore assumes around 12,000 deaths per year.

Not to mention the people who were killed under the influence of alcohol in the wheel. Their number rose by nine to 58 persons from 2015 to 2016, the number of injured persons by 31 to 2616. And the dead will probably be no less. According to the epidemiological search survey in Bavaria, 17.4 percent of adults drink alcohol at high risk – especially younger people. Nearly 37 percent are between 18 and 24, while the 60 to 64-year-olds are just under six percent. Here, too, men are particularly affected.

Alcohol abuse leads to violence and high economic costs

Alcohol abuse does not only affect the drinkers themselves. The economic costs of alcohol-related diseases in Germany are estimated at more than 26 billion euros. On the other hand, income from the state is derived from alcohol-related taxes of just 3.2 billion euros. In addition, there are social consequences, such as violence among alcohols. In one third of all violence in Bavaria alcohol was involved. The attacks of drunders on the police and rescue service have increased in comparison with the previous year to nearly all Bavarian police droids. Overall, the number of suspects who have committed criminal offenses rose by 1800 to 41 430 compared to the previous year. Some of the drunken accused were not yet 14 years old.

The Minister of Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann (CSU) can not say whether local alcohol bans can help to reduce the rate of crime development. An increasing number of municipalities and cities would, however, issue such decrees. “Thus,” […] can effectively reduce […] regulatory disorder and offenses committed under influence of alcohol, “the reply says.

The Ministry of Health praises itself for having further increased the starting age for the first consumption of alcohol by means of prevention programs such as “Strong Will Instead of Proliferation” or the “HaLT” action. In fact, teens drink less alcohol. The proportion of those who have consumed cannabis in the last 12 months has risen by four to 22 per cent, according to the Munich Institute of Therapies Research. Kiffen instead of drinking on the Wiesn – perhaps it is nevertheless no utopia. (David Lohmann)

INFO: Alcohol Consumption
Alcohol has a long history in Bavarian culture: it is both a pleasure and a drug. According to science, there is no alcohol consumption without a health risk. Recommended quantity for women: You should not drink more than 12 grams of pure alcohol per day, which is about 0.3 liters of beer or 0.15 liters of wine or sparkling wine or about four centiliters of an alcoholic drink such as liqueur, corn or vermouth. Recommended quantity for men: You should not drink more than 24 grams of pure alcohol per day, which is about 0.6 liters of beer or 0.3 liters of wine or sparkling wine or about eight centiliters of liquor.

Advice for women and men: The German headquarters for addiction recommends to abstain from alcohol on at least two to three days a week. Risks: In the long term, there is a risk of becoming dependent. In case of excessive consumption, alcohol can cause severe cardiovascular disease, liver disease and various types of cancer. Renouncement: For health reasons people should stay sober when they take medication. Pregnancy: If a drinking mother becomes an alcohol, it may interfere with the babies’ baby’s development and cause premature birth or premature birth. Children and adolescents: For them alcohol can have serious consequences for the developing organism, starting with a blood alcohol value of 0.5 per thousand, there is the danger of becoming unconscious.

http://www.bayerische-staatszeitung.de/staatszeitung/landtag/detailansicht-landtag/artikel/oans-zwoa-totgsuffa.html