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Canada Export Cannabis chart

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Canadian weed producers will dominate the global marijuana market

In marketing strategy, there’s a term called “first-mover advantage”. It’s when a few key players in a particular industry gain an advantage because they entered into the marketplace first. These companies are able to establish strong brand recognition, shore up the best sources of funding, and build a loyal customer base simply because there aren’t any competitors in the way during their first few years of operation.

When it comes to the market for exporting weed, big Canadian LPs have clearly established a first-mover advantage. There are currently 29 countries that recognize some form of medical cannabis, but only two of those countries — Canada and The Netherlands — export weed for medical use. In fact, the medical marijuana export market is dominated by just four Canadian weed producers: Cronos Group, Canopy Growth Corporation, Aphria, and Tilray.

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To some extent, it’s going to be a decades-long upward battle to really capitalize on the global demand for weed, given that the drug is still illegal in most countries. But Canadian marijuana companies are ahead of the curve in terms of making their mark overseas, as they scramble to collaborate with foreign medical marijuana producers and pharmaceutical companies keen on discovering and potentially patenting marijuana-based cures.

The European Experiment

“There’s huge opportunity for us in Germany,” PI Financial Corp. analyst Jason Zandberg told VICE Money. “They provide national health coverage for medical marijuana. That means, the German market could be more than double that of Canada.”

Medical marijuana officially became legal in Germany in March 2017, opening up a whole new market to Canadian LPs. Very little weed is actually farmed in Germany, although the government’s legalization framework includes a big push to cultivate the crop on its own for medicinal use to ensure its quality. Until then, however, the German cannabis industry will still rely entirely on imports.

In order to export weed to Germany, Canadian weed producers need to get approval from their own government and the German government. Late last year, Canopy Growth Corporation, a Unicorn in the weed industry, acquired the German-based pharmaceutical distributor, MedCann GmbH, which had successfully placed Tweed-branded cannabis strains in German pharmacies.

In fact, a month before that, another big Canadian LP, Cronos Group began the global expansion of their brand by shipping its first batch of “premium” medical marijuana to Germany. They currently own a subsidiary, Peace Natural Projects Inc., which signed an agreement with the German-based Pedanios GmbH, a distributor of medical cannabis.

Germany is just the first domino, believes Zandberg. “More European Union countries will create new medical cannabis laws and expand the export market for Canadian LPs. Currently 12 of the 28 EU members have a medical cannabis program.”

Restricting recreational weed exports

It is estimated that the global cannabis market may be worth $200 billion, with medical marijuana accounting for up to 50 percent of that. But Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s pot bill continues to make the export of weed for recreational use illegal, a factor that vastly limits the ability of Canadian weed producers to grow their business.

Canopy Growth CEO Bruce Linton however, sees this as a temporary hurdle. “Canada is emerging as a leader in public policy around marijuana and other countries will need its know-how as they shift toward making cannabis and cannabinoids part of standard medical treatment,” he told Bloomberg in an interview last month.

“That gives Canopy the chance to export product while the domestic industry makes that transition, and to set up production on the ground once it has,” Linton said. In other words, get in there first, mark your territory, establish your brand, and your consumers, regardless of nationality, will only want to consume Canadian weed.

Saul Kaye, the chief executive of iCan, a private Israeli firm that focuses on identifying innovators in the medical marijuana space, has dealings with a bunch of Canadian LPs.

“There’s a synergy that’s happening between Israel and Canada when it comes to marijuana. They are focused on the growing, on the agricultural side. We are focused on the R&D side, and we need that supply of different weed strains.”

But former Toronto police chief Bill Blair, a key player in the government’s campaign to legalize weed has made it clear that one of Canada’s biggest priorities is to ensure that there is adequate supply of legal weed in the market, to “weed out” illegal suppliers.

That could potentially mean the crackdown of export permits in order to prioritize the domestic market. Of course, that depends on how weed will be priced in different countries. If obtaining a marijuana pill is more expensive in say, Germany, there will be a greater incentive for big Canadian LPs to focus their sales there.

Big LPs charge ahead

Currently, four Canadian LPs export weed to a combined six countries. According to Jason Zandberg, it is Tilray, a private LP based in Nanaimo, B.C. that has been the “most aggressive LP in the export market,” selling weed to New Zealand, Australia, Chile, Brazil and Croatia.

Australia legalized marijuana for medical consumption back in November, which prompted another Canadian company, Aurora Cannabis, to lock in a 20 percent stake in Cann Group, the first Australian firm to be awarded a license from the Australian government to grow weed for medical purposes. Leamington-based Aphria also took notice of the Australian market by signing an agreement with Medlab, a weed research firm in Australia, to grow and prepare weed for the completion of a clinical trial.

The big prize, of course, is anyone who manages to crack the American market, in the unlikely event that they legalize medical marijuana. Aphria is attempting to do just that — it recently invested $25 million in a dispensing operation in Florida, besides also having a stake in an Arizona-based weed company. Aphria claims that its strategy in the U.S. is to “target key states that have approved medical marijuana.”

“There’s global opportunity out there,” Zandberg said. “The EU countries are a huge export market for us, but I believe that overall we’re positioned really well to tap into an additional leg of growth beyond the Canadian medical and recreational market.”

Follow Vanmala on Twitter   https://news.vice.com/story/canadian-weed-producers-will-dominate-the-global-marijuana-market


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Mary Jane Berlin 2017 From June 16 to 18 11:00 to 20:00 Funkhaus Berlin Nalepastr. 8th 12459 Berlin www.maryjane-berlin.de

Pack your bags and head off to Berlin

Last year, the first major hemp trade fair capital in the old post station took place, has been transformed into an idyllic place for the entire cannabis scene thanks to expert preparation. More than 100 international exhibitors, many snacks and very positive mood of pleasant reggae sound created beautiful atmosphere and let the many visitors closer to the marijuana issue, as it is common in everyday life. Since the enthusiasm also echoed many of those at home and do not want to stay away from the Berlin Hemp days on the Mary Jane Berlin in 2017, the special event expanded this year to almost double the size. The Mary Jane Berlin 2017 invites to convince even more people from the many useful properties of hemp Gewächses and bring connoisseurs of the topic of news as interesting facts about it.

For this reason, the team moved to Duc Anh Dang the consequences and saddles in 2017 in a larger area, which will provide enough space over 150 exhibitors. In the radio house Plänterwald are all well-known manufacturers of garden products, and cannabis products be represented at over 5000 m² of hall space and 2,000 m² outdoor area and present to interested visitors their latest achievements from 16 to 18 June. For a cheap day ticket of Mary Jane Berlin 2017 15 € – 30 € demanded euros for an even more favorable three-day ticket, which are wisely invested hemp friends. Rarely does one find the concentrated industry in one place concentrated even more rarely you meet the blended cream of the crop in the German capital.

Now since this country was cannabis as medicine finally accepted, is also to be expected with increased incidence of personalities from overseas. So 2017 offers the Mary Jane Berlin will naturally be a packed stage program in which more than twenty national and international specialists reveal their knowledge and are available for discussion groups available. A much larger hall is on the second held hemp trade fair for the dissemination of information to delegates whose discussions can therefore take place this year in an undisturbed setting. Among other Growing expert Mr. Jose will talk about cannabis cultivation in general, Rick Simpson strong case for a quick completion of Prohibition and Gerhard Seyfried reads from his book “Hemp in happiness.” Even the medical aspect is, of course, thoroughly lit and of course the driver’s license law is subject to a panel discussion.

Plenty of good reasons – to show the first warm rays of the Berlin city sun and to philosophize with many like-minded people about the changes in legislation, the benefits of Nutzgewächses and the failure of Prohibition – the Mary Jane Berlin 2017 therefore provides no doubt. Ways his favorite producers, editors of trade magazines, or even deserved praise speak out are on the June 16 to 18 in Berlin held hemp trade fair guarantees to satisfy given. Only the available repertoire of subjects for all undecided traders will slowly rar …

Let’s meet at:

Mary Jane Berlin 2017

From June 16 to 18

11:00 to 20:00

Funkhaus Berlin
Nalepastr. 8th
12459 Berlin

www.maryjane-berlin.de


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Chris Driessen from ORGANA BRANDS — Celebrate commoditization and the birth of “Big Cannabis”

Celebrate commoditization and the birth of “Big Cannabis”

by Chris Driessen

I now buy legal cannabis by the ton. I negotiate the price of dried, ground marijuana as if it were just another commodity…because it is. Cannabis is simply an amazing agricultural commodity and precious raw material input– dropped into a not-so-complicated equation, designed to produce profit.

Just two years ago I was paying some $2,000 a pound for world class marijuana. Now that price has fallen by two thirds and I pay roughly $600 a pound. This is great news for our purchasing department, but not so much for our wholesale prices. Alas, this was inevitable, it’s simple economics. It makes market expansion all the more critical. If you are not growing, you’re dying, or soon will be. More money in the market invites more competition, which motivates us to innovate, scale and ultimately find efficiencies in our processes.. or be chewed up by the competition.

At Organa Brands, I oversee an entire house of brands that makes everything from cannabis vaporizers to THC tablets, edibles and dabs, and even energy drinks. I expect that before long, our CBD products — many of which have no THC — will be stocked on shelves at convenience stores, gas stations, Costco and Walmart.

Fortunately, that’s where my experience lies. Before entering the world of cannabis, I had spent years as a printer salesman, selling millions of dollars of commercial printers to clients throughout the Rocky Mountain region. The commercial printing business is cutthroat, as any office manager with a decent sized copy machine will attest. The hardware is sold for the narrowest of margins, or even below cost, while the emphasis is put on the consumable commodity, which is the ink.

Seem familiar? If not, what kind of cellphone do you have? You likely got the phone on the cheap or even free, as long as you signed up for the lengthy service contract. Guess where the money is made?

There are purists who shun the idea that if (when) marijuana goes mainstream, it is a disaster. They believe it’s a cave-in to big capital, big corporations, to profiteers and all things sacred of this undoubtedly magical plant. I couldn’t disagree more. If we are to unlock and share the medicinal and wellness properties of cannabis, why not champion the professional distribution of our favorite plant? Why not embrace enterprise resource planning software platforms, hi-tech manufacturing techniques, tighter inventory controls, agricultural efficiencies and crisp profit-and-loss statements?

The best homage we can make to this amazing plant is to produce the finest cannabis oil possible, to place it in attractive, finely-tuned packaging, that is both alluring to adult consumers and childproof, and offer it to consumers nationwide. The greatest contribution I can give to this industry and this amazing plant is to make sure it finds its way into as many lives as possible. We can scale our businesses larger, scrutinize costs and expenses, pour over financial reports and become the solid start-up that transforms into a legacy company that withstands the ups and down of the business world.

I believe we should celebrate national cannabis brands because we are able to incorporate up-and-coming products and place their innovative oils, edibles and medicines into our nationwide distribution network that reaches some 1,200 dispensaries in 10 states (and counting). We should support and encourage each other to become a tribe of companies, a community of cannabis enthusiasts that collectively have the market power of “Big Cannabis”. While that name scares many, it simply means that our industry has “made it.” It means we are here to stay, that we withstood the test of time and government prohibition. We have found a permanent home in the world economy.

When people criticize what they fear is the “homogenization” of marijuana, I can only laugh. Is there any better way to celebrate diversity of brands and up-and-coming entrepreneurial know-how than to offer a launch pad to those superior cannabis products? A launch pad that guarantees their product can be sold from Boston to Berlin, from San Francisco to Sydney?

It has been this same process of consolidation, which is a natural evolution in any maturing industry, that led the O.penVAPE team to look beyond vape pens and incorporate a whole new range of products, and a whole new range of possibilities. That’s why earlier this year we rebranded as Organa Brands — literally a house of brands.

For years, the company where I work was known for its O.penVAPE pens. We sold some 6 million of our cartridges and earned a strong customer following and loyalty with budtenders nationwide. Was that the result of some fortuitous “lucky break” or the natural result of dozens, then hundreds of employees working weekends, staying late and attempting to find a route to success in the highly competitive cannabis industry? I’ll let you answer that one, because I already know.

Our downtown Denver corporate office looks more like a tech startup in Silicon Valley than a mega cannabis conglomerate. We have trendy coffees that self-brew on demand, organic snacks and the requisite office pets and ping pong table. But don’t let the laid back atmosphere or tunes playing on the Sonos fool you. Our office is stocked with brilliant minds ready to go toe-to-toe with Big Tobacco, Big Alcohol and Big Pharma. We relish the opportunity to measure up against other, more mature industries. To do that we must first pass through the inevitable commoditization of our products, work with the compression of profit margins and weather the oncoming storm of consolidation.

I don’t make any medical or health claims about cannabis, but I know that a deep feeling of wellness and peace accompanies the cannabis products we produce. Every day, I receive letters of thanks. If this deep wellspring of consumer support leads to the nation’s first national chain of dispensaries, or million-acre cultivation facility, or a multinational consumer products cannabis company, I say we should all celebrate.


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Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen – HERO!

Solidarity for abandoned cannabis patients.

Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen Employee of the nova Institute, Chairman of the Cannabis Association as Medicine (ACM)
Dr. med. Franjo Grotenhermen, photo: Archive

 

The well-known physician and chairman of the Cannabis Association as a medicine (ACM) Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen has made a moving decision. Although certain positive aspects could be felt in parts through the enacted cannabis-as-medicine law, there would be enough problems in the entire treatment area, which now led to a drastic measure. During the ACM Annual General Meeting in Frankfurt on May 12, 2017, the medical doctor, who has been advocating medical medicine for many years, declares his decision not to eat any food for the next one to two weeks as a result of solidarity with the many cannabis patients left alone.
Doctor Franjo Grotenhermen joins the hunger strike.

 


Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen at the ACM Annual General Meeting 2017 explains hunger strike.

 

The drug policy speakers of the parties were informed before Dr. Franjo Grotenhermen of the warnings – an honorary man.


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Maricann secures $42.5 million for German Grow Facility – from Green Streaming Finance Company of Canada éh

Toronto, Ontario–(Newsfile Corp. – May 4, 2017) – Maricann Group Inc. (CSE: MARI) (Maricann or the ‘Company’) is pleased to announce that Maricann has secured $42,500,000 in non-dilutive financing to further expand production in Germany.

The $42,500,000 non-dilutive financing comes from The Green Streaming Finance Company of Canada Inc., a Vancouver-based company that provides non-equity financing solutions for cannabis producers. The streaming payment will be made in return for the right to purchase 20% of production at an all in cost +10% from expansion funded by Green Streaming in Germany.

We are pleased to be funding Maricann and their expansion efforts in Germany. This is a win-win relationship for Maricann and Green Streaming Finance, with no dilution to Maricann shareholders and a stable, reliable, renewable stream of revenue to Green Stream Finance from a proven producer of medicinal cannabis.

donald-mcinnesDonald McInnes, founder of Green Streaming Finance

Under the terms of the agreement, Maricann will receive investment in two tranches, $15,000,000 and a $27,500,000. This financing will fully fund the planned 150,000 sq. ft (13,935 square meters) expansion of cultivation operations in its Ebersbach Facility and an additional 250,000 sq. ft. (23,255 sq. m.) of expansion in a two tiered cultivation plan, as well as an outdoor hemp farm from which Maricann will derive high CBD content active pharmaceutical ingredients. The Ebersbach facility (West of Dresden), is a former Cargill plant constructed 20 years ago at a cost of 80 million EUR at that time. The facility is comprised of multiple individual clean rooms that are ideal for cultivation of cannabis.

The Ebersbach facility offers Maricann a significant advantage in cost of overall construction and speed to market. The infrastructure for cultivation of cannabis in an indoor secured environment is already in place. We simply need to add the fertigation system, lights and benches for growing, and then can be operational.

ben ward maricann groupBenjamin Ward, CEO

Our competitors are spending north of $70,000,000 CAD for facilities with less than 1/3 the footprint of our Ebersbach location. To construct a similar facility today, the estimated cost would be over 120 million EUR. Maricann entered into a reservation agreement to purchase the facility for a total price of 3,410,000 EUR at closing.

About Maricann Group Inc.

Maricann is a vertically integrated producer and distributor of marijuana for medical purposes. The company was founded in 2013 and is based in Langton, Ontario, where it operates a medicinal cannabis cultivation, extraction and distribution business under federal licence from the Government of Canada. Maricann, which has federal licences to cultivate, process and distribute cannabis, services a patient base with more than 8,000 total registered patients since inception. Maricann is currently undertaking an expansion of its cultivation and support facilities in Canada in a fully funded 217,000 sq. ft. (20,159 sq. m), to support existing and future patient growth. Maricann GmbH is a 95% owned subsidiary of Maricann Netherlands BV, a 100% wholly owned subsidiary of Maricann Group Inc.

Maricann Milestones

  • April 2013, Maricann Inc. is founded in Langton, Ontario, a well-established agricultural region in southwestern Ontario
  • March 2014, Maricann Inc. obtains its Health Canada licence to cultivate plants
    December 2014, Maricann Inc. obtains its Health Canada licence to sell dried cannabis
  • January 2015, first dried cannabis sale
  • September 2016, Maricann Inc. earns its Health Canada licence to sell cannabis extracts
  • October 2016, first sale of extracted cannabis
  • December 2016, Maricann Inc. raises $22.5 million in private capital
  • January 2017, commences sale of clones
  • February 2017, Maricann Inc. raises $10 million in private capital
  • April 24, 2017, first day of trading on the CSE
  • April 28, 2017, announces Advisory Board of German subsidiary.

For more information about Maricann please visit our website at www.maricann.ca.

Contact Information

Shawn Alexander
VP Investor Relations
salexander@maricann.ca

Corporate Headquarters:
Maricann Group Inc. (C.MARI)
845 Harrington Court, Unit 3
Burlington Ontario L7N 3P3
Canada

Dial Toll Free in North America:
1.844.Maricann (627.4226)

Original press release: http://www.accesswire.com/461841/Maricann-Secures-42500000-Non-Dilutive-Financing-for-Further-German-Expansion


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Statement from Health Canada on Mandatory Testing of Medical Cannabis for Unauthorized Pesticides

OTTAWA, May 5, 2017 /CNW/ – Health Canada is committed to protecting the health and safety of Canadians, including those who use cannabis for medical purposes. On February 7, 2017, following three recalls of medical cannabis related to the use of unauthorized pesticides, Health Canada announced that it would begin a series of unannounced inspections, including random testing of cannabis products from licensed producers to ensure that only registered pesticides are used during the production of cannabis for medical purposes. The aim of these measures is to provide added assurance to Canadians that they are receiving safe, quality-controlled cannabis products.

As part of a first series of unannounced inspections of seven licensed producers in March, Health Canada collected samples of plant leaves, dried cannabis and cannabis oil (if produced), as well as samples of any products suspected to contain pesticides the inspectors found on site.

On May 1 and 4, Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency completed laboratory testing of plant leaves from the seven inspected sites. Five of the seven sites (RedeCan, 7 Acres, Tweed, Tilray and Broken Coast) showed no sign of contamination in the leaves that were tested. Of the remaining sites, both leaf samples at Hydropothecary tested positive for myclobutanil at low level concentrations of between 0.012 and 0.023 parts per million (ppm), and one leaf sample from plants at Peace Naturals tested positive for piperonyl butoxide at a low level concentration of 0.78 ppm. Myclobutanil is a pesticide that is not authorized for use in cannabis cultivation, while piperonyl butoxide is a synergist that is a substance that is combined with pesticides to increase their effectiveness. Piperonyl butoxide is considered an active ingredient in pesticides, and is not contained in any of the 17 pesticides authorized for use in cannabis cultivation. Testing of dried cannabis and cannabis oil samples taken from the seven licensed producers is ongoing; results are not yet available.

When it announced random testing, Health Canada was clear that it would not hesitate to take additional measures if warranted based on evidence. Today, Health Canada is announcing that it will require all licensed producers to conduct mandatory testing of all cannabis products destined for sale for the presence of unauthorized pesticides. Licensed producers already test cannabis products for microbial and chemical contaminants (such as mould, heavy metals, and bacterial and fungal contamination) as required by the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations. In addition, Health Canada will continue to carry out random testing of product samples collected during its regular and unannounced inspections of licensed producers to help ensure the safety of Canada’s medical cannabis supply.

Hydropothecary and Peace Naturals are working to determine through additional testing by independent laboratories which product lots may be affected, will communicate directly with clients who may have received affected product, and have indicated they will undertake voluntary recalls as necessary. Health Canada will keep the general public informed by publishing information in the recalls and safety alerts database. These companies are also undertaking an investigation and will implement any necessary corrective measures, which will be reviewed by Health Canada.

The Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations are clear: only the 17 pesticides listed under the Pesticides Act (PCPA) for use on cannabis crops may be used at any point in cannabis production. There are no exceptions to these requirements, and no situations in which using a pesticide that is not authorized under the PCPA for cannabis cultivation would be acceptable.

In the coming weeks, Health Canada will provide guidance to licensed producers on how to implement mandatory testing, including reporting of test results to Health Canada. This requirement for mandatory testing for the presence of unauthorized pesticides will help ensure that Canadians can continue to have confidence in obtaining safe, quality-controlled medical cannabis from licensed producers.

Associated Links

Statement from Health Canada on the Testing of Cannabis for Medical Purposes for Unauthorized Pest Control Products

Original press release: http://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/statement-from-health-canada-on-mandatory-testing-of-medical-cannabis-for-unauthorized-pesticides-621498033.html


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Legal Approaches to Decriminalize Cannabis in 16 Different Countries

Legal Approaches to Decriminalize Cannabis in 16 Different Countries

This report, prepared by the foreign law specialists and analysts of the Law Library of Congress, provides a review of laws adopted in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and Uruguay with regard to decriminalization of narcotics, and touches specifically on cannabis and legalization.

Individual country surveys included in the study demonstrate varied approaches to the problem of prosecuting drug use, possession, manufacturing, purchase, and sale. The country surveys demonstrate some diversity and common threads among these jurisdictions as to defining narcotics, distinguishing between “hard” and “soft” drugs, establishing special regulations concerning cannabis, refusing to prosecute personal use and/or possession of small quantities of drugs for personal use, giving law enforcement authorities the discretion not to prosecute minors and first-time offenders, applying alternative forms of punishment, and providing treatment opportunities.

Netherlands

Planning a trip to Amsterdam? Did you know that coffee shops are actually prohibited from selling drugs to you under Dutch law, and that nonresidents are not even supposed to enter the coffee shops? But wait, before you freak out and cancel your plans, know that Amsterdam tolerates the sale of certain “soft drugs” to foreigners looking to try what Amsterdam is best-known for. Local mayors have the authority to close such shops for not adhering to local rules, but they typically do not step in to assign punishments.

Dutch coffee shops rely on income from tourists, which in turn contributes to local economies, so officials do not typically enforce the residency requirement.

Germany

If you get caught by police in Germany, don’t even try to argue soft drug versus hard drug. Law enforcement doesn’t recognize the difference. The distinction between hard and soft drugs can only be considered at sentencing.

Australia

You should know that there is no national decriminalization policy, and cannabis use is technically considered illegal across the county. However, three jurisdictions (Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, and Northern Territory) have decriminalized minor cannabis offenses, especially possession of the plant.

Costa Rica

The use of narcotics in Costa Rica, including personal use, is prohibited by law; but no penalty for such violation is found on the books. Police, prosecutors, and the courts have discretion to drop charges if it is a minor, first-time offense, or the accused is willing to enter a treatment program.

Mexico

Although possession of illegal drugs is generally a crime under Mexican law, possession of less than 5 grams is not criminally punishable. However, if you are caught, a rule enacted in 2009 requires that you must be referred to an addiction treatment program.

“The ruling eliminates the prohibition and criminalization of acts related to the medicinal use of marijuana and its scientific research, and those relating to the production and distribution of the plant for these purposes,” the Lower House said in a statement on its website.

Mexico’s Lower House of Congress passed a bill on Friday, April 28, to legalize the use of cannabis for medical and scientific needs. The measure passed in a general floor vote 371-7-11, and now classifies delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as “therapeutic.”

The bill is now on President Enrique Pena Nieto’s desk, who is expected to sign it.

Uruguay

For now, it appears that the only country where it is completely legal to produce and use cannabis is Uruguay, although consuming cannabis in a public place is prohibited.

Adopted in 2013, Uruguay’s Law to Legalize and Regulate Cannabis brought radical change to the country’s approach to cannabis production and use. The law allows legal access to cannabis in four ways: medical marijuana through the Ministry of Health, home-grown marijuana, membership clubs, and sales to adults in drugstores. Although registration of consumers and cannabis clubs has been completed, implementation of sales in pharmacies is still underway.

Read the full report for free

These and many other interesting facts can be found in a recently published Law Library of Congress report on decriminalization of narcotics. Some diversity and common threads are demonstrated among the 16 countries included in the free report, such as defining narcotics, distinguishing between hard and soft drugs, establishing special regulations concerning cannabis, and discussion of the parameters of law enforcement and forms of punishment for personal use and/or possession.

You can access the full report here.